Super-heroes were on the outs by the end of the 1940s. Most DC Golden Age super-heroes ceased publication by 1951 (with the exception of Batman, Superman, and Wonder Woman, known as DC's "Big 3"). Fawcett's Marvel Family titles were gone by 1954. Over at Timely Captain America held out until Sept 1954 and the Sub-Mariner ceased publication in Oct 1955. While the super-heroes were waning in popularity, other genres were gaining dominance on the comic stands. This era is characterized by a popularity of Western, Romance, War, Sci-Fi, and Horror comics, mirroring genres that were also popular on radio, TV, and movies. It was in this environment that EC Comics thrived (see above), but EC was not the only publisher putting out comics in this transitional period in between the Golden and Silver Ages of super-heroes, there were a lot of publishers who had a start in the Golden Age who continued publishing diverse genres in the 1950s. But when all is said and done, the Atomic Age is really an overlay onto the end of the Golden Age and a shorthand that collectors will often use when referring to non-super-hero comics of the 1950s.
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